Friday, November 17, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF CEMENT AND CORN COB ASH ON UCS AND DIRECT SHEAR TEST OF CLAYEY SOIL by Gurjap Singh

Abstract
The Soil present in natural conditions may not be appropriate for using it for any type of construction
work. Soil present in nature at required site may be have no. of strength deficiencies such as its less tendency to withstand the load due to construction work having lower bearing capacity and high amount of compressibility. Soil therefore thus needs to be stabilized and its properties needs to be modified in appropriate way to gain high strength characteristics before its apllication for any type of
construction work. Where agricultural commodities are grown and produced at large scale those nations are facing problems due to large amount of agricultural wastage produced like rice husk,corn
cob,sugarcane baggasse.etc. Corn cobs are thrown in the field by farmers as waste. As corn cobs does
not decompose easily results in causing numerous problems to surroundings as well as environment. Corn cob ash is produced by burning corn cobs. Corn cob ash rich source of silica and thus having large tendency to behave like pozzolana make it very suitable for using as cementious material. Objective and motive of study investigation is to investigate Soil:Cement:Corn Cob Ash mixture strength improvement by seeing its strength through UCS , DIRECT SHEAR TEST of stabilized soils. These tests were performed by addition of varying Soil:Cement:Corn cob ash mixtures. Having varying value of OMC and MDD. Locally obtained soil was tested by adding varying cement content. Corn cob ash was added in varying amount alongside optimized cement value. 7 and 14 days curing duration was done. For optimum mixture cement 2% and corn cob ash 6% compressive strength enlarged by 257 kN/m2 and 334 kN/m2 as equated to virgin soil strength for 7 and 14 days curing spell respectively. Shear strength for optimum mixture increased by 14kN/m2 as equated to virgin soil strength for 14 days curing spell.Consequently Strength parameters were found showing a sufficient improvement in the strength features of the soil.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

SENTIMENT ANALYSIS ON PUNJABI NEWS ARTICLES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE by Gagandeep Kaur 

Abstract
Sentiment analysis is a field of Natural Language Processing and it is the most trending field of research. In the process of text mining that is used to find out people’s opinion about a particular product, topic and predicting market trends or outcomes of elections, detecting and classifying sentiments from the text. Sentiment analysis on the Punjabi language is to be performed because of increasing amount of Punjabi content over the web, provides an important aspect for the researchers, organizations, and governments to analyze the user-generated content and get the useful information from it. This work basically focuses on mining sentiments and analyzing them for the Punjabi language. With the increase in the amount of information being communicated via regional languages like Punjabi, comes a promising opportunity of mining this information. Nowadays, it is a new trend to read online news in a daily practice. People's opinion tends to be changed as per they read news content. The news content that they read normally about the negative content regarding various things for example rapes, corruption, thefts etc. Reading such negative news is spreading negativity around the society. So there is need to classify the positive and negative news content for creating a positive environment because if they read positive they think positive. Support Vector Machine approach is used by the proposed system to classify the content into different categories of news like crime, entertainment, politics, sports, and weather and then finding its polarity. The results of the proposed system depict remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of sentiment analysis on Punjabi news articles using Support vector machine is found to be 90%.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

DETECTION OF CONVECTIVE CLOUD MOVEMENT by Roopali Kalra 

Abstract
Weather information is very important for human safety, agriculture or to prevent any kind of loss. Clouds play a very important role in balancing energy and water cycle. Also, they are helpful in predicting weather information. There are two forms of clouds which are present in the sky. These clouds are namely stratiform clouds and some are convective clouds. Stratified clouds are known as low clouds. These clouds have uniform base and have horizontal layering. Stratified clouds result into a light mizzle or a small amount of snow and do not indicate much meteorological activity. Convective clouds are ones that form and grow by the process known as convection. Precipitation from these types of cloud is often short-term, heavy and usually begins and ends suddenly. To identify the types of clouds is an important task as if one can have that knowledge before-hand, the damage to life and property which are caused due to heavy rain or storms can be prevented. Convective clouds are high intensity clouds and stratiform clouds are low intensity clouds. The main idea of this work is to extract the high intensity clouds and low intensity clouds from the meteorological images and also check if there is any anomalous movement in the convective clouds. MAXZ image from Doppler weather radar installed in Patiala has been used. The radar covers the various locations in the radius of 250 km from Patiala. The color scale has been used to differentiate two types of cloud. The shape of the clouds has been detected on the basis of area and depending on the shape, the movement of clouds is judged.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from computer

WAVELET BASED ALGORITHM FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF RAINMASS FROM RADAR IMAGES by Rajdeep Kaur 

Abstract
Water is a very important part of human life. Economic scenario of a country highly depends on the rainfall. Rainfall estimation has become very necessary due to day by day increasing global heat level. An enormous amount of rainfall is a serious threat to both life and property because it causes a flood. Therefore, it is important to find where rainfall has occurred, the amount of rainfall and to forecast rainfall. Warnings of the flood can be generated before rainfall occurrence if heavy rainfall is forecasted accurately. Precise prediction of rainfall can be achieved by using accurate rainfall estimation technique. Basically, there are three estimation techniques namely: rain gauge, weather radar and numerical weather prediction model. Among all the three, weather radar provides more accurate information about the rainfall and therefore is widely used in rainfall prediction models. Weather radar measures reflectivity. The reflectivity of weather radar is directly related to rainfall rate. Moreover, weather radar performs short term rainfall prediction, based on the current weather situation. Therefore, a new algorithm using Met Eireann rainfall radar images has been proposed for the identification of rainmass from radar images. Physical and morphological feature of each identified rainmass is extracted. The next movement of rainmass is predicted based on the features of preceding rainmasses identified from the radar images.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CONCRETE BOX GIRDER BRIDGE by Nupur Singla 

Abstract
With more and more infrastructure projects coming up in India and all around the world the economics of bridges have also received a lot of attention in last few decades. Bridges are an essential part of transportation infrastructure of any country. It is becoming increasingly essential for a designer to find out the most efficient solution which could be both safe and economical. Structural behavior and economy of a bridge largely depends upon its span arrangement and geometry. Major geometrical parameters chosen for superstructure is span length, span/depth ratio and number of cells in Box Girder Bridge. Designers use these parameters based on the past experiences and same typical values are used repetitively considering their satisfactory performance. With the advancement of construction technology and invention of high performance concrete it is necessary to revise the conventional values and make the structure more economical. Span-to-depth ratio, also known as slenderness ratio (L/h), is an important bridge design parameter that relates a bridge’s span length to its girder depth. Similarly number of cells in Box Girder Bridge also plays a vital role in structural behavior of a bridge. Hence, all these parameters are considered together to study the effect of their effect on the structural behavior as well as cost of a box girder bridge. In the present work, the effect of Span to depth ratio, span length and number of cells is studied by analyzing and designing Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridge by considering different values of these parameters. Span to depth ratios 15, 20 and 25, Span length 30m, 40m and 50m is considered each for single and double cell Box Girders. Thus, total 18 cases are considered in this study. Detailed analysis is carried out to find out the design bending moment, shear force and deflection values. The analysis of bridge superstructure is carried out in STAAD Pro. Software. From the detailed analysis & design of each configuration, the influence of given parameters is studied on the deflection of Box Girder Bridge. The design as per Indian Standard Codes for each configuration is done. Following that, the drawings are prepared from which the material quantity i.e. Concrete and steel are calculated. Then the rate as per state government schedule is applied to these quantities to obtain the total unit cost of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge superstructure. From the study it is observed that with increase in span to depth ratio, deflection of the structure increases. With increase in ratio, depth decreases which ultimately decrease the quantity of material. This eventually lowers the cost of superstructure. It has been observed from the present study that with change in span length there is significant change in overall steel and concrete quantity for the bridge which leads to huge variation in raw material costs and also the variation in deflection of bridge deck. Similarly number of cells in Box Girder Bridge also plays a vital role in structural behavior and economy of a bridge. 

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF RIB PATTERN ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF REBARS by Jagvir Singh

Abstract
The transfer of forces from rebars to encompassing concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) is affected by numerous parameters. A few endeavors were made to comprehend the impact of bond on worldwide conduct of RC members. However, comparison data on bond strength of various rib patterns for various diameter is inadequate. An attempt was made to contemplate the impact of different parameters on bond, for example, depth of cross ribs, spacing between two neighboring ribs and embedment length. The present study is done on rebar of diameters 12mm, 16mm, 20mm and 25mm. For embedment lengths of 75mm, 150 mm, 225mm, 300mm and 375mm for 12mm diameter, for M25 concrete grade. The bars were inserted in concrete with confinement utilizing spirals reinforcement according to IS 2770:1967. The casting was finished keeping the bars in the vertical position. The anchorage bond specimens were tested utilizing universal testing machine. The bond stress was found to decreasing as the bar diameter increased. Bond failure was seen during pullout test in confined specimens.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SHEAR BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE BEAMS by Jaskaran Singh 

Abstract
In the immediate scenario construction industry utilizing concrete doesn’t promote sustainable form of development. High volume fly ash concrete deal with these cores issues and lays foundation of construction industry towards sustainability. Traditionally, fly ash used in structural concrete as a replacement or supplementary material has been limited to 10–35% cement replacement. In this experimental study laboratory exam were conducted on control concrete and concrete containing 50 % replacement of cement with fly ash that is high volume fly ash concrete. The prime intention of the research was to take note on the shear behaviour of HVFAC beams with two size of coarse aggregates (16 mm, 20 mm) at four percentage of longitudinal steel (0.8%, 1.25%, 1.8%, 2.51%) and compare this with similarly designed conventional concrete beam. From the test results it is indicated that shear strength of the beam having 20 mm aggregate tends to be more in comparison to the shear strength of beam having 16 mm aggregate in high volume fly ash concrete, when the percentage of longitudinal steel is kept same in both cases. The ultimate load carrying capacity and shear strength of concrete increases with increase in percentage of longitudinal steel of beams having same crossection in high volume fly ash concrete as well as in control concrete. Replacement of fly ash with cement in high volume fly ash concrete has led to small decrement in compressive strength of concrete.

Monday, November 6, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from production

COST OPTIMIZATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES by Amanjot Singh

Abstract
In modern era manufacturing units are extra competitive for providing the high-quality products with lowest cost. Organizations have crucial plan to increasing profit, service quality and decreasing total cost i.e. supplier cost, transportation cost etc. in supply chain network. Every company has few aspects of the supply chain network that it must direct and grow beneficially and efficiently to stay alive and raise. Manufacturing industries face many problems in their supply chain network that include- Inability to meet demand for production of products and material, shortage of material/less production, excess of material/more production or holding cost of inventory to keep excess material, high supplier cost and high transportation cost due to mismatch, low profit margin. In the current work artificial intelligence techniques genetic algorithm and pattern search has been used to solve the optimization problem of supply chain network. In supply chain network, total supplier cost and transportation cost has been optimized. A comparison has been carried out with actual cost. From simulation results, we can see that pattern search algorithm gives optimal solution for supplier cost and transportation cost. Thus, pattern search method is effective for solving supply chain network problem. By using this method supplier cost reduced to Rs. 473900 and transportation cost reduced to Rs. 39000 from actual cost.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

TO MITIGATE THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FAULTS ON COMMUTATION OF LCC HVDC SYSTEM by Kamaljeet Kaur 

Abstract
To transfer large amount of direct current power having high amplitude voltage over long distance HVDC transmission system is used. HVDC is abbreviation of high voltage direct current. This system was introduced 60 year ago and now it is widely used all over the world. In power transmission field there are various types of High voltage direct current systems. Some examples are Voltage-Sourced-Converter (VSC), capacitor commutated converter (CCC) and line commutated converter (LCC) dependant HVDC techniques.VSC method used for multi-terminal Direct Current grid, but line commutated direct current method performs better as compare to VSC in broad distance large amount of power transmission due to its efficiency. Various difficulties faced in LCC HVDC system like while voltage is reduced from (10% to 15%) and commutate fails. The LCC HVDC system is having better performance in comparison to others so the analysis is done on this system to reduce the commutation distortion. The 500 kV, 5000 MVA at 60 Hz system is connected to 345 kV, 10000 MVA at 50 Hz system using DC line of 1000 MW, 500 kV and 2 kA line. The 12 pulse monopolar thyristor converter based HVDC system is used for this analysis. The DC fault is having less effect on commutation as compare to the AC single and three phase fault. During DC fault only the distortion is occurring which is minimized with the help of DC filter. During AC faults the commutation failure is occur that is minimized by using IGBT capacitor circuit. The comparison of results is done with the system having no fault and it is conclude that the AC faults are the main reason of commutation failure and that effect is mitigate with the help of IGBT capacitor circuit.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

ALL OPTICAL CDMA CONFIDENTIALITY ENHANCEMENT USING 16 CODE KEYING by  Prabhjot Kaur 

Abstract
As we know OCDMA is a coding technique which is used to spread optical pulses with respect to time wavelength. This technique can support simultaneous users to access optical channels. Now the concept of multi-code keying encryption has been used to enhance received power, confidentiality and security of the OCDMA system. In order to solve the above mentioned purpose hardware implementation is done by using Optical exclusive XOR gate and codeword multiplexer CMUX. This optical design is highly scalable. The basically for the input sequence of data bits and the sequence of encryption keys NRZ modulation format is used. Thus 16 code keying has been constructed using XOR of 2 code, 4 code and 8 code keying. Using optisystem software, this has been observed that on increasing coding from 2 keying to 16 keying, power improves and trails enhance. Thus, as a result security and confidentiality improves, it has been possible due to the XOR gate and NRZ generator with CMUX. There is successive improvement of 52% using 16 coding technique as it improves due to 2� � codewords. Since the proposed system is based on XOR gate and NRZ pulses, this is the best system to improve confidentiality or to improve encryption. The latency of XOR gate is very high and because if this feature, MAI is also reduced. Since number of code words being used in 16 code keying is more than any other system, it will make difficult for the eavesdropper to recognize the data symbols. Also the system is providing with another benefit of more power received which will make the system highly secure as the transmission is being done at 1550 nm. Hence the confidentiality and the power improvement is best in case of 16 code keying.

Thursday, November 2, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY USING PHOTOVOLTAIC DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER by Saliha Aarif 

Abstract
In today’s scenario the power quality has become one of the major requirements in the power system where electricity is concern. The power quality problems are generally produced by power  electronics equipment’s. This equipment’s may produce nonlinear loads. These can produce interruption in power system hence produce power quality problems. There are some problems that are associated with power quality. Some of the power quality problems are voltage sag, voltage swell, transients, harmonics, voltage spikes etc. Among this voltage sag is one of the major power quality problems. It has detrimental effect on the system operation. In this way there is a need to compensate it in order to avoid perturbation in the system. For this a Custom Power Device is used namely ‘Photovoltaic Dynamic Voltage Restorer’. This is most effective device used for the mitigation of voltage sag, voltage swell, harmonics etc. photovoltaic system used with dynamic voltage restorer can help for energy storage for battery system for further operation. It is non-conventional source of energy. So it is cheaper. A three phase source is connected with dynamic voltage restorer and photovoltaic system to have better results in the mitigation of voltage sag.

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

OPTIMUM DESIGN OF FIXED RC BEAM USING A META-HEURISTIC TECHNIQUE by Vijay Kumar 

Abstract
In the present era of infrastructural and economic development, civil engineering structures play a very important role. Since the construction cost has sky rocketed in recent years, it becomes imperative for builders and clients to look for economical design that fulfils all safety parameters. To survive the competition, construction companies try to reduce the cost of structures as much as possible for which they need to reduce the cost of every structural element. This can be done by finding a possibility, among thousands of cases, that leads to minimum cost keeping the strength and other parameters satisfied. So, optimization becomes an essential requirement. There are various optimization techniques based on different criterion, which are being used by researchers. Each of these has certain advantages and limitations. There is no technique that can be considered an all-weather technique, because these techniques have been developed by the researchers considering a particular problem. The motivation behind present work was to check the suitability of one of the latest optimization techniques namely ‘Ray Optimization’ for the design of fixed reinforced concrete (RC) beam. This technique is based on ‘refraction phenomena’ of light. Since the phenomena under consideration is a physical one, it becomes easy to understand and use the technique. Exploration capabilities of this technique have also been found to be good. The law of refraction, known as Snell’s Law plays its role in defining the algorithm. The convergence of the process is dependent on the value ‘refractive index ratio’ that can be defined by the user as an input, and this parameter defines the rate of convergence to the global optimum solution. Other factors that affects the convergence are size of search space, number of local minima etc. In this research, a fixed RC beam is optimized using Ray Optimization for different cases of loadings and spans. Two algorithms, one for design of fixed RC beam and second for Ray Optimization have been written in MATLAB editor as functions. Both these programs are combined to work as a single entity for optimum beam design. Two variables namely effective depth of beam and width of beam are considered as variables for the optimization problem. Other parameters like grade of concrete, grade of steel, width of support, span and loading are taken as inputs from user, hence during the optimization process they are considered as constants. A number of designs considering different spans, grade of steel and concrete are generated using the algorithm to check their effect on overall cost of the beam. A number of optimum designs are studied and variation of cost is compared with the grades of concrete and steel, which indicates that higher grade of steel leads to reduced overall cost of the member. Percentage optimization also increased from 8 percent to 15 percent as span of the beam was increasing and
the results of the program was best when the refractive index ratio was kept between 0.4 to 0.7.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

Bearing Capacity Improvement of Sand using Geocell Reinforcement by Abhinandan Jaswal 

Abstract
There are various methods to increase the engineering properties of soil using different types of reinforcements. Over the last thirty years, the favourable effect of using reinforcements to increase the bearing capacity of sand is clearly shown by several investigators. In this study, the laboratory model tests are conducted on a strip footing resting on a sand bed which is reinforced with a geocell mattress. The purpose of present study is to determine the improvement in bearing capacity of soil by reinforcing it with geocell mattress. So the effect of various parameters such as height (h/B) and variation of depth (u/B) of the geocell mattress was investigated. The depth of geocell mattress is kept 0.5Β, 0.75Β, 1.0Β and 1.25B and it is observed that the gain in load carrying capacity starts reducing beyond 0.5B and the maximum increase of 388% is observed at a 0.5B depth of geocell layer. There is sufficient increase in the bearing carrying capacity by the using of geocells and the optimum depth of geocell layer was found to be 0.5B below the footing. It was also observed that the increase in height of geocells affects the load carrying capacity in a positive way. So, the geocell mattress can be used efficiently in geotechnical applications to enhance the strength characteristics of the sand bed.