Wednesday, September 13, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

STUDY OF COMBINED EFFECT OF GEOGRID AND WASTE PLASTIC STRIP REINFORCEMENT ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF SAND by Alok Sharma 

Abstract
Improvement of bearing capacity of soil can be achieved by using different types of reinforcement such as geogrids, geocells and fibers of different material etc. In the recent years, experts have extensively used geosynthetic materials as reinforcement for improving the bearing capacity of soil. Fibers/Strips have high tensile strength hence acts as good reinforcement material and increases strength of the soil because shear stresses in soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibers. So in this study an effort has been made to investigate the combined effect of geogrid and plastic strips from waste water bottles having aspect ratio 3 as reinforcing material in sand. The main emphasis of this study is to explore the utilization of waste plastic along with geogrid for strength improvement of cohesionless soil. Plastic waste being a non-biodegradable material poses serious threat for its eco-friendly disposal and its use for geotechnical purposes may be a suitable solution. During Load settlement tests optimum depth of first geogrid layer from the bottom of footing was decided and found to be at 0.5 B, where B is the width of footing and increase in bearing capacity was observed to be 100% as compared to unreinforced sand. The optimum location of second geogrid layer was found out at the depth 0.7B from the bottom of the first layer of geogrid and increase in bearing capacity was observed to be around 280%. Optimum content of plastic strip reinforcement (1%) was mixed in the sand and sandwiched between two geogrid layers and about 450 % increase in bearing capacity was observed. Load settlement behaviour of soil indicates substantial improvement with the use of
plastic strips sandwiched between geogrid layers.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil

EFFECT OF BAGASSE ASH AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON CBR AND SWELLING INDEX OF EXPANSIVE SOIL by Amir Suhail 

Abstract
Expansive soils are present throughout the world. The construction on expansive soil has always a big challenge to geotechnical engineer. Construction of buildings and other structures such as highways, dams etc on expansive soil is a very risky task due to high expansive behavior of such soils. Every year they cause damage of billions of dollars because of presence of montmorillonite mineral, that is highly unstable thus leading to shrinking and swelling of this type of soil that are able for captivating the water. They enlarge in volume when they come in contact with water. Behaviour of these types of soil causes the failure of structure in the form of fissures, settlements etc. To improve the stabilization of the expansive soils several types of additives have been evolved and are successfully being used for this purpose. One such additive that can be used for this purpose is calcium chloride(CaCl2) and baggase ash(B.A). Bagasse fibre is an agricultural waste remaining after the crushing of sugar cane for juice extraction. When bagasse fibre is burnt the ash produced is called bagasse ash(B.A). Bagasse ash(BA), contain a high percentage of silica (SiO2), which is investigated as a reasonable pozzolanic material having unreactive behaviour and has the ability to be used in the stabilization of road subgrade. The different percentages of bagasse ash used were 4%, 8% & 12%, whereas Calcium chloride was used at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% & 2% resp. The available local soil was not expansive in nature and 20% bentonite powder was added in the soil to make it expansive. However, according to the observation, chemical additives (calcium chloride) exhibit superior performance over cementitious and non-cementitious (bagasse) additives in reducing the swelling characteristics (Gangadhara Reddy.N et al 2015). The laboratory tests performed were standard proctor test, CBR and Swelling index test. The results shows that the OMC increases but MDD decreases and CBR value increases upto 8% when bagasse ash used in the soil. The results also shows that when optimum value of bagasse ash and varying percentages of Calcium chloride, the OMC decreases but MDD increases and CBR value gradually increases. The maximum strength was obtained at 2% CaCl2 mixed with soil. However, the swelling index decreases with increase in the concentration of bagasse ash and calcium chloride

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from environmental

Removal of Heavy Metal (Zinc) from Electroplating Industry Waste Water by Adsorption Technique
by Mandeep S. Saini 

Abstract
Fastest growing industrialization has resulted in the discharge number of toxic pollutants into the effluent among which the major component is of heavy metals. All the heavy metals pose a considerable risk to human health. Zinc is one of the heavy metal which is used in various industries
like galvanizing, metallurgical, electroplating, mining, paints, pigments, pulp and paper and pharmaceuticals and is generally found in higher concentrations as per the current scenario in Ludhiana city. Ions of zinc metal get accumulated in the living organisms after consumed through food chain, causing several diseases and disorders like failure of kidney, effect on liver. There are some methods those are used to removal of heavy metals in the wastewater such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, ultra filtration and phyto-remediation. When metals are in high concentration then these methods are either expensive or inefficient for their removal . So this research work dealt with the adsorption technique using the natural coagulants- banana peels and mausambi peels which is an economical and environmental friendly technique for removing zinc metal from the industrial effluents. The research work involved studying the variation of removal efficiencies with pH variation (2-10 pH), contact time variation (1-5 hours) and optimum dosage variation (1-14 g/l) in order to optimize each of them for getting the maximum removal efficiency. The results showed that the highest percentage of removal obtained was at a pH of 6 in case of both banana peel and mausambi peels but the removal was higher in banana peel (50.90 %) as compared to mausambi (citrus limetta) peels (45.72%) at a same initial dose of 2g/litre of both the adsorbents. Further, the final values of contact time for banana peel and mausambi peel was observed to be 3 and 2 hours respectively. The results for adsorbent dosage showed that the highest removal that could be attained was 81.81% in case of banana peels at a dosage of 8 g/l which was higher as compared to 75.87 % in case of mausambi peels at an adsorbent dosage of 10 g/l. The analysis finally showed that the removal efficiency is a function of initial concentration of zinc present in the wastewater sample i.e more the concentration, lesser was the removal observed and also that the banana peels were observed to be a better adsorbent as the removal was at a higher rate.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from electronics

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED OPTIMIZED CNR PENALTY OF RADIO OVER FIBER SYSTEM INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF PHASE NOISE FROM LASER AND RF OSCILLATOR by Sarpreet Kaur

Abstract
Radio over fiber systems have been gaining popularity since the beginning of this century due to crowded frequency spectrum and demand for high data rates. It provides the benefits of both optical fiber technology and wireless techniques. Optical fiber systems provide higher data rates and very less attenuation whereas wireless technology has an edge over long distance transmissions. Nature based algorithms have become very famous to optimize certain values to achieve the desired results. However while focusing on the wired part there are some inherent deteriorating factors which does not let the system utilize its full potential. Especially during the electrical to optical conversion in the central office, phase noise processes play a dominant role leading to the deterioration of the signal. Phase noise is also knows as phase jitter. In a radio system it can severely damage the performance of the communication system making it very sensitive. Basically phase noise is a representation in the frequency domain which shows the sudden fluctuation in the frequency waveform of the signal. In radio over fiber system, phase noise processes are related to the line widths of laser diode and RF Oscillator used in signal generation process. The previous studies have analyzed the effect of line widths of both the components on the output of the system graphically. However, no concrete values were considered and the inputs were more of the random nature and the work is carried out on a single length of fiber. In this work, an efficient PSO algorithm has been applied to optimize CNR penalty of Radio over Fiber system including the effects of phase noise from laser and RF oscillator within predefined ranges of 100 to 624 MHz and 0.1 to 10 Hz respectively. The changes in the optimization function are observed along with the fiber length of 2 Km, 10 Km and 30 Km. Particle swarm optimization provides an optimum platform to get specific values of line width of RF oscillator to be around 0.1 Hz and that of laser diode around 620 MHz giving a minimized error and an efficient RoF system. The proposed algorithm provided the optimized value of 0.1001107 Hz, 0.1002415 Hz and 0.1002619 Hz for RF linewidth and the values of linewidth of laser (571.2951 MHz, 421.1735 MHz and 410.7692 MHz) for 2 Km, 10 Km and 30 Km respectively. It has been observed that carrier to noise ratio penalty responds very sensitively to a minor change in line width of radio frequency oscillator whereas the change in line width of laser diode produces a meager penalty on the output of the system. It is further observed that a small change in RF line width leads to high phase noise and changes in laser line causes a minimum effect on the same output. Radio over fiber technology opens a wide arena for various possible, probable and preferable technologies. It has a vast potential and the work for its enhancement has already started. It can be further used in satellite communications, fiber to home systems, eco friendly technology and other millimeter wave regime systems. The proposed work can be further extended to uncrowd the spectrum by making it less susceptible to noise floors and focusing more on the component enhancement even a minor degradation can be worked out.

Friday, September 8, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from production

FINE FINISHING OF BALLS WITH BIODEGRADABLE MEDIA by Gourav Sharma

Abstract
Fine finished balls whether metallic or non-metallic have many applications mainly in moving mechanical parts, for making toys, jewellery, computer hardware, watches, etc. These balls are generally manufactured by using conventional lapping process. In this study the fine finishing of balls
has been explored by modifying an existing setup used for lapping of balls. An alternative media comprising of aloe vera and silicon carbide powder was used in place of conventional oil based media. The improved setup gave encouraging results for finishing of mild steel balls. A variety of input factors like finishing time, spring force, rotational speed of spindle, abrasive quantity have been used and their effect on intensity of finishing of balls, material removal and roundness for a given set of balls has been studied. It was found that for a given set of balls the maximum percentage improvement in surface finish achieved was 82.3%, material removal rate was 7.56 and the roundness was improved from 31μm to 9.05μm.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil [Geo-technical]

STABILISATION OF CLAYEY SOIL USING GRAPHENE OXIDE AND FLY ASH by Avtar Singh 

Abstract
Soil plays an important role in civil engineering. Properties of soil vary according to type of soil. If soil is unfit for the purpose of construction, structures constructed on itshow earlier trouble and ultimately collapse. Construction on clayey soil is difficult as this type of soil shrink & swell with differing water percentage.Generally, clayey soil has low strength and in addition to it high dampness weakness. Terrible soil subgrade can make different issues for the asphalt and structures, in this manner an appropriate adjustment system is needed. In modern world, different types of chemicals are used for stabilisation process. After studying properties of Graphene Oxide (G.O), it was concluded that G.O exhibits a proper nature for stabilization process. Main aim of this research is to evaluate performance of graphene oxide in stabilizing the soil to an optimum level. In this research, Fly Ash is also used along with G.O. According to ISCS, soil used is categorised as clayey soil with intermediate compressibility (CI). Various concentrations of G.O (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% & 1.0%) along with different proportions of fly ash (15%, 20% & 25%) were added to the soil to check compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio & Unconfined Compression strength. Results showed that with an increase in G.O concentration CBR and UCS values of soil also increases.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil [Environmental]

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF CONSTRUCTED HYBRID WETLANDS by Simranjit Singh

Abstract
The demand of water is increasing, with rise in population. To tackle it, the government agencies are taking various steps to recycle wastewater and put this treated wastewater into various uses. Constructed wetlands or man-made wetlands are one of the leading wastewater treatment systems. It is very sustainable, cost effective and simple. In present study, the kitchen wastewater and domestic wastewater is treated in four different variants of hybrid wetlands (combination of vertical beds and horizontal beds as subsurface type flow constructed wetlands) and the removal efficiency of wastewater characteristics i.e. BOD, COD, TSS, Total nitrogen (nitrates, ammoniacal and organic nitrogen) and Total Phosphorus were compared with these different variants and a previous study in which single VFCW is used to treat same wastewater in same conditions using same plant. The detention period was 3hrs for hybrid systems. Phragmitesaustraliswas used as vegetation on both cells of hybrid system. Study period was February to April (25˚C to 44˚C), 10% of water is lost through evapotranspiration at 3hours HRT whereas it is almost 39% in case of 24hour HRT. The testing in hybrid system was conducted in vertical to horizontal flow type system, connected in series
and vice versa, in which the substrate in horizontal bed was local alluvial soil in first phase and sand in second phase of study. The vertical units were provided with aeration pipe of 2.5cm diameter from top to bottom of the bed and the upper layer is of local alluvial soil whereas in previous study of VFCW, no aeration pipe is provided and the upper sub substrate is of fine clay. Out of the four designs of hybrid setup, the system with horizontal to vertical flow type that too with sand bed as substrate in horizontal, gives maximum efficiency for all the parameters except for total phosphorus. For TP the efficiency for all the systems more or less remains same. All the hybrid systems as well as single VFCW are very effective in stabilizing the pH of wastewater in the range of 7.45-7.57.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil [Geo-technical]

BEHAVIOUR OF STRIP FOOTING RESTING ON SAND BED REINFORCED WITH 3D INSERTS by Prince Karandeep Singh 

Abstract
Attempts are being made worldwide to investigate various measures to reclaim land not found suitable for the engineering applications. One such area is strengthening of land by inserting reinforcement as geogrids, Geocells, fibers, steel bars etc. in this direction, a series of laboratory plate load tests were conducted on model strip footing resting on sand reinforced with 2D, single sided and double sided 3D reinforcement. The load carrying capacity, settlement, depth of reinforcement layer and effect of variation of height of vertical members of single sided and double sided 3D reinforcements were investigated. Load settlement behavior of soil reinforced with 2D strips, horizontal strips attached with vertical strips on upper side and , 2D strips attached with vertical strips on upper and lower side were studied at a different depth were observed, where B is width of footing. An increase of about 111% in load carrying capacity was observed when 2D strips are placed. If horizontal strips with 1cm high vertical strips on upper side are placed at the same depth a increase of 230% was observed. If the height of vertical strips was increased to 2cm, the increase of 270% in load carrying capacity was observed but a decrease trends was found if height of vertical strips was further increase to 3cm. A vertical strip on lower side was also introduced with 2cm vertical strips on upper side as a 3D reinforcement and found maximum load carrying capacity was achieved when the height of vertical strips are 2mm at both side. As the double sided vertical strips attached with horizontal not only increases the confinement of soil but also increases passive resistance of soil against the shearing as compared to conventional geosynthetics.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from civil [Geo-technical]

STABILISATION OF YELLOW SOIL BY ADDING SAWDUST ASH AND LIME by Amreen Farooq

Abstract
As we know that the soil is a peculiar material. Some waste materials like pond ash, rice husk ash can
be used to make a soil stable. Addition of such materials has a great impact on both physical as well as chemical properties of the soil. By adding such admixtures some of the properties like CBR value, liquidity index , plasticity index , standard proctor test can be improved by adding this. As we know large amount of sawdust ash and lime has been produced all over world. The main aim of this paper was to study about stabilization of clayey soil by using lime and sawdust ash. In this study the soil which was used taken from the local area of Rajouri J&K. The soil was clayey in nature. Moreover, sawdust ash and lime was used as a admixture in this. Firstly the lime was added in soil at a proportion of 5% , 10%, 15% and after that a combination of lime and sawdust was added in it to check the variations in different tests like UCS , Standard Proctor Test and CBR test. After that curing of samples was done. For UCS curing was done for 3 days but for CBR curing was done for 7 days. As we know that the disposal of sawdust ash in an open areas causes many environmental problems so it should not be dumped openly as it is not eco-friendly. The proper utilization of ash in geotechnical applications gives a good solution. From the experimental study it was concluded that sawdust ash act as a good stabilizing agent for both base and sub base course. Moreover, its improvement can also be improved by combining it with other materials to provide a better result for future.

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from production

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF DIE CHANGE SCHEDULE IN A FORGING INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY by Mohkam Singh 

Abstract

Hot Forging is a metal forming process which is applied to a wide variety of high strength automotive
components. To satisfy demand of high production rate at lower cost, it is very important to consider the life of dies. In general, the possible causes of die failure in metal forming include cracks, plastic deformation and wear.A preliminary survey of forging industries revealed that dies experience everal problems during embossing and stamping processes like surface cracks and changes in dimensional unstability etc. On an average the production need to be stopped 2-3 times in typical day. In this study, the die dismantling cycle and methods to increase die life in upset forging has been done in a local industry. The hot forging operation was carried out at a work-piece temperature of 1100°C and die temperature of 200°C for a batch of rear axle shaft on a 1200 ton horizontal upsetter. The work-piece and die materials were AISI 1038 mild steel and AISI DB 6 die steel, respectively. After changing the die material i.e.H13 die steel and implementing the graphite with water lubrication, the die life increases 50% and the production rate increases 15%. The die dismantling cycle also reduces

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

A REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT USING INTERNET OF THINGS by Manpreet Singh 

Abstract
Electrical network must be monitored in order to acquire the measurands viz; voltage (V), current (A), power factor (ɵ), power (VA) and energy consumption (kWh). In the present energy scenario it is
pertinent to improve the system efficiency in order to minimize power wastage. Remote monitoring and control system based on IoT has been successfully implemented to achieve the above mentioned objective. The system comprises of Remote Terminal Units (RTU) which are connected to the main server that communicate with it over Ethernet cables using TCP/IP protocol. Atmega328p microcontroller acts as the brain of Remote Terminal Units which are programmed using the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Voltage, current, humidity and temperature sensors are interfaced with microcontroller. Electrical loads are connected to the microcontroller via electromechanical relays. ENC 28j60 is used to connect the atmega328 microcontroller with internet that enables the microcontroller to send data over internet. Hardware is designed using the open source software Dip Trace and it is finally fabricated. A desktop computer with Linux operating system acts as a server that acquires and stores the data in the form of *.csv file. This data is visualized in the form of graphs and it can be subjected to statistical analysis. Server software is developed using the Object Oriented approach of Python language. It consists of several parts viz; Graphic User Interface (GUI), networking system, speech synthesis and data storage system. All these parts run in parallel using multi-threading approach. Graphic User Interface of software is created using the Tkinter library. Python sockets are used to handle the networking and to communicate with the remote terminal units. The data between server and clients is transferred using the Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). Speech is synthesized using the festival framework. Threading module of language manages all the tasks in parallel and they are well synchronized with each other. Data is stored with time stamp which is obtained from the time module. The whole prototype has been set up in the microcontroller and PLC lab in Department of Electrical Engineering and has been successfully tested.

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PV SHEDS FOR GNDEC CAMPUS IN PARKING AREA
by Simranpreet Singh 

Abstract
The advancement of moderate, unlimited and clean sun based energy is having long term benefits. It is expanding the energy security of nations, decreases pollution and helps to reduce the global warming. Solar energy is being increasingly used in India for production of electricity. India more so north India has abundant sunshine all year round. This power can be used to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity. This thesis describes the design and analysis of photovoltaic plant aiming to cover the parking area of Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, Punjab with PV panels, which will provide electrical energy for the institution and also sun shade for the cars thereby saving on energy costs and contributing to green energy.An area of 150x68 (approx. 10200) square feet is selected to design the solar PV shed in parking. Placement of solar PV modules is designed in the AutoCAD software and these panels are mounted on the poles. These poles are organized in rows and columns. Each row contains 6 poles and total 11 rows are designed. Elodra Ultima Silver series panels are used having the dimensions of 5.5x3.25 feet which are manufactured by Vikram Solar Company. Capacity of each panel is 250 Wp and total 400 panels are used in this design which makes the total capacity of 100kWp. Three inverters, one of 60kVA and two of 20kVA each are used to convert the DC power to AC power. System works in ongrid mode and surplus energy is supplied to utility using Net-metering. Total capital cost and payback period is calculated

Monday, September 4, 2017

New M.Tech. Thesis Submitted from power

POLY-GENERATION SOLUTION FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGE DHEEYA, RAJASTHAN by Azadwinder Singh 

Abstract
Electricity access plays a vital role for the socio-economic progress of rural areas. Safe drinking water and clean cooking energy are the basic necessities of daily life. The integrated supply of both could have a great positive impact on living standard of inhabitants of rural regions. In this context, present work study will elaborate the feasibility and potential effects of poly-generation system that provides access to clean energy, electricity and safe drinking water to rural village in India. Based on the case study, this thesis examines the load assessment of village and resource potential for electricity generation and cooking. Whereas, the electricity is also used to purify water from Reverse Osmosis system. As per available resources, the system of biogas generator and solar PV has been designed by using techno-economic optimization from HOMER software. The study also estimates the willingness as well as ability to pay for services in order to have a positive impact of poly-generation system on rural inhabitants. The project has potential to completely satisfy the electricity demand of village and initially it has capability to supply cooking gas to 62% of the households. The levelized cost of electricity obtained by HOMER for system is 0.193$/kWh which is about four times costlier than the consumers pay for electricity obtained from grid. Yet, the system has potential to provide additional services like clean cooking fuel and safe drinking water along with electricity access to the villages which are not feasible for grid extension due to topography of the region. The system with quality and reliable services provide benefits to villagers in terms of education, health, safety, income generation, comfort and entertainment.